Islamic Banking in Global Economic Context (Critical Studies of Operational System and Performance of Islamic Banking)

Jamal Abdul Aziz

Abstract


Berdasarkan kajian terhadap sejarah kemunculan dan sistem operasional Bank Islam beserta kinerjanya, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa konsep bank Islam pada hakekatnya merupakan bentuk islamisasi terhadap institusi perbankan. Hanya saja proses islamisasi yang terjadi baru sebatas pada aspek-aspek yang bersifat marginal, artifisial, dan formal-institusional, seperti penggantian istilah-istilah teknis dalam dunia perbankan dengan istilah yang berasal dari fikih muamalah, penghapusan bunga, dan penolakan terhadap praktek-praktek bisnis yang haram. Selebihnya, bank Islam tidak berbeda dengan bank konvensional. Dampak dari islamisasi yang kurang substansial-komprehensif tersebut adalah timbulnya kesan bahwa bank Islam justru ‘terbelenggu’ oleh konsep-konsep fikih klasik yang mendasarinya, di mana ia cenderung kontra produktif dengan tren  bisnis moderen yang senantiasa menuntut efisiensi dan fleksibilitas. Agar tetap dapat survive di masa-masa mendatang, bank Islam perlu mengevaluasi diri secara terus menerus dengan selalu membuka diri terhadap berbagai kritikan yang dialamatkan kepadanya. Konsepsi yang terlalu berorientasi kepada doktrin harus diimbangi dengan kesadaran akan fakta-fakta dan tuntutan bisnis moderen, baik yang berskala lokal maupun global. Sementara itu cita-cita Islam yang ideal, seperti pemberantasan kemiskinan, pendistribusian kekayaan secara adil, dan penciptaan lapangan kerja, harus tetap menjadi orientasi utamanya.

 

Kata Kunci:

Riba, Profit and Loss Sharing, Mudrabah, Murâbahah, Artificial Aspects of Islam

 

Abstract:

Based on the study of the history of emergence and operation of Islamic Bank and its system performance, the author conclude that the concept of Islamic bank is essentially a form of Islamization of the banking institutions. Such Islamization are limited to the marginal, artificial, and formal-institutional aspects, such as the replacement of technical terms in the banking world with a term derived from the fiqh al-mu’âmalah, the abolition of interest, and the rejection of unlawful business practices. Moreover, the Islamic bank is no different from conventional banks. The impact of such less substantial and comprehensive islamization is the perception that Islamic bank is precisely 'shackled' by the concepts underlying classical fiqh, where it tends to be counter-productive with modern business trends which are constantly demanding efficiency and flexibility. In order to remain able to survive in the future, Islamic banks need to evaluate itself continuously by always open to criticism addressed to them. The conception of Islamic banking oriented too much to the doctrine must be balanced with an awareness of the facts and the demands of modern business, both local and global scale. While the ideals of the Islamic ideal, such as the eradication of poverty, equitable distribution of wealth and job creation, should remain the main orientation.


Keywords


riba, Profit and Loss Sharing, mudharaba, murabaha, artificial aspects of Islam

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/al-lhkam.v12i2.1301

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