Utilizing the Assets Acquired from Illegal Conducts A Study of Fiqh Maqâshid of Yûsuf al-Qaradlâwî

Busyro Busyro

Abstract


Harta merupakan kebutuhan setiap orang yang di dalam Islam mesti didapatkan sesuai dengan aturan-aturan yang benar. Menurut  Yûsuf al-Qaradlâwî apabila seseorang sudah terlanjur mendapatkan harta dengan cara maksiat, maka yang bersangkutan tidak boleh memanfaatkan harta itu untuk dirinya, sebaliknya harta itu boleh dipergunakan untuk kepentingan umum. Pemikiran hukum ini beranjak dari adanya pertentangan antara konsep larangan memanfaatkan harta haram secara dharûriyah dan konsep larangan menyia-nyiakan harta yang juga berada dalam tingkat dharûriyah. Dengan pendekatan fiqh maqâshid al-Qaradlâwî menyimpulkan bahwa pertentangan antara dua dharûriyah yang berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan harta harus diprioritaskan kepada mafsadah yang lebih kecil dan maslaẖah yang lebih besar. Sehingga dengan demikian harta hasil maksiat tidak boleh dimanfaatkan oleh si pelaku maksiat karena menimbulkan mafsadah yang lebih besar pada dirinya dan tidak ada celah maslaẖah yang didapatkannya. Sebaliknya harta itu boleh dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan umum, karena terhindar dari mafsadah dan menghasilkan maslaẖah. (An asset is the basic need of every human being, but in Islam, it should be acquired through proper ways according to the rules. Yûsuf al-Qaradlâwî argued that if someone has already acquired an asset through immoral acts, then he is forbidden to utilize the asset for himself. On the contrary, the assets could still be utilized for the public benefit. This legal concept is based on the contradiction between the concept of prohibiting the use of illegal assets in dlarûriyah state and the concept of prohibiting the misuse of assets which is also in the dlarûriyah state. With the approach of fiqh maqâshid, al-Qaradlâwî concluded that the conflict between the two dlarûriyah states regarding the utilization of the asset should prioritize less on the mafsadah and more on the maslaah. Thus, the illegal assets are forbidden to be exploited by immoral act offenders because it generates more mafsadah for him and there are only a few maslaah he could get. On the contrary, the assets are allowed to be utilized for public benefit since the assets will be protected from mafsadah and will result in maslaah).


Keywords


Maslaẖah, Mafsadah, Dlarûriyah, Fiqh maqâshid

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/al-ihkam.v13i2.1670

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