The Representation of Women in Li Young-Lee’s Poems

Patricia Vania Septhine Yulia Asthereni

Abstract


Patriarchy has become the central attention of feminism because its practices expand to many different fields in society, such as politics, law, power relations between male and female and literary works, such as poems. Lee, as a poet with a lot of notable achievements, also internalises his patriarchal ideology through the women representation portrayed in "Persimmons", "Braiding", "Pillow", "Early in the Morning" and "This Room and Everything in It". This study analyses five of Lee's poems utilising close reading to discover the exercises of patriarchy to the female characters in Lee's poems. The points are proven by six structures of patriarchal system, which cover six aspects of social life namely mode of production; salaried employment; state; male violence; culture, and relationship in sexuality. Women's portrayal in Lee's poems specifically reveals patriarchal relations in sexuality. This study concludes that Lee's portrayal of women in his poems is indeed patriarchal by means of (1) characterising women as weak and passive; (2) male dominating as evident in sexual relationship and (3) making women as sex objects.

Keywords


Patriarchal relations; Sexuality; Sexual objectification; Woman portrayal

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adriana, Iswah. “Bahasa dan Gender: antara Dominasi dan Subordinasi (Sebuah Kajian Sosiolinguistik).” OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra 6, no. 2 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/ojbs.v6i2.425.

———. “Representasi Kekuasaan dalam Ragam Sapaan Suami Istri di Sampang Madura (Sebuah Kajian Etnografi Berbahasa dalam Gender).” OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra 8, no. 2 (2014): 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/ojbs.v8i2.461.

Alexander, Jonathan. “Discursive Sexualities: Bridging Sexuality and Literacy Studies.” In Literacy, Sexuality, Pedagogy. Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2008. 10.2307/j.ctt4cgqkw.

Arianto, Tomi, and Ambalegin. “Indoctrination against Women in The Lowland by Jhumpa Lahiri.” OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra 12, no. 2 (November 2018): 153–66. https://doi.org/10.19105/ojbs.v12i2.1935.

Butler, Judith. “Rethinking Sexual Difference and Kinship in Juliet Mitchell’s Psychoanalysis and Feminism.” Differences 25, no. 2 (2012): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1215/10407391-1629794.

Crenshaw, Kimberle W. “Close Encounters of Three Kinds: On Teaching Dominance Feminism and Intersectionality.” Tulsa Law Review 46, no. 1 (2013): 151–90. https://digitalcommons.law.utula.edu/tlr/vol46/iss1/13.

Edwards, Tim. Erotics and Politics. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Einspahr, Jennifer. “Structural Domination and Structural Freedom: A Feminist Perspective.” Feminist Review 94, no. 1 (March 1, 2020): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.2009.40.

Gupta, Kristina. “Compulsory Sexuality: Evaluating an Emerging Concept.” Signs 41, no. 1 (2015): 131–54. https://doi.org/10.1086/681774.

Kolosov, Jacqueline. “Poetries of Transformation: Joy Harjo and Li-Young Lee.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 15, no. 2 (2003): 39–57.

Lee, Li Young. “Braiding.” In Rose, 57. Brockport, United States: BOA Editions Ltd, 1986. https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/braiding/.

———. “Early in the Morning.” In Rose, 25. Brockport, United States: BOA Editions Ltd, 1986. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/48803/early-in-the-morning.

———. “Persimmons.” In Rose, 17–19. Brockport, United States: BOA Editions Ltd, 1986. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43011/persimmons.

———. “Pillow.” In Book of My Nights, 1. United States: BOA Editions Ltd, 2001. https://www.poemhunter.com/best-poems/li-young-lee/pillow/.

———. “This Room and Everything in It.” In The City in Which I Love You, 49. Rochester, New York: BOA Editions Ltd, 1990. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43328/this-room-and-everything-in-it.

Leitch, Vincent B., William E. Cain, Laurie A. Finke, John McGowan, T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, and Jeffrey J. Williams. “Simone de Beauvoir.” In The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism: Third Edition Norton Anthology, 1211–14. New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2018.

Macé, Eric. “From Patriarchy to Composite Gender Arrangements? Theorizing the Historicity of Social Relations of Gender.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 25, no. 3 (September 1, 2018): 317–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxy018.

Puvia, Elisa, and Jeroen Vaes. “Being a Body: Women’s Appearance Related Self-Views and Their Dehumanization of Sexually Objectified Female Targets.” Sex Roles 68 (December 29, 2012): 484–495. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-012-0255-y.

Rossan, Sheila. Introducing Women’s Studies: Feminist Theory and Practice. Edited by Diane Richardson and Victoria Robinson. 2nd ed. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1996.

Smith, Barbara. “What Was ‘Close Reading’?: A Century of Method in Literary Studies.” The Minnesota Review 87 (January 1, 2016): 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1215/00265667-3630844.

Szymanski, Dawn M., Lauren B. Moffitt, and Erika R. Carr. “Sexual Objectification of Women: Advances to Theory and Research.” The Counseling Psychologist 39, no. 1 (2011): 6–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000010378402.

Vaes, Jeroen, Paola Paladino, and Elisa Puvia. “Are Sexualized Women Complete Human Beings? Why Men and Women Dehumanize Sexually Objectified Women.” European Journal of Social Psychology, Published Online in Wiley Online Library, no. 41 (2011): 774–85. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.824.

Walby, Sylvia. “Structuring Patriarchal Societies.” In Sociology: Introductory Readings, by Antony Giddens and Philip W Sutton, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010.

Xiaojing, Zhou. “Inheritance and Invention in Li-Young Lee’s Poetry.” Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS) 21, no. 1 (March 1, 1996): 113–32. https://doi.org/10.2307/467810.

Yao, Steven. “The Precision of Persimmons: Hybridity, Grafting and the Case of Li‐young Lee.” Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 12, no. 1 (January 1, 2001): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10436920108580279.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19105/ojbs.v14i1.3137

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Patricia Vania Septhine Yulia Asthereni

 



View My StatsFree counters!
 
  


Creative Commons License
OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at Rumah Jurnal IAIN Madura